Mandarin Duck Birds

Everything You Need to Know About Mandarin Duck Birds

Mandarin Duck
Mandarin Duck

The mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) is a small perching duck species native to East Asia. With their colorful plumage, these ducks stand out for their beauty. Read on to learn all about the characteristics, behavior, habitat, and conservation status of this eye-catching duck species.

What is a Mandarin Duck?

The mandarin duck is a medium-sized duck, measuring 41–49 cm (16–19 in) long with a 65–75 cm (26–30 in) wingspan. It belongs to the genus Aix, along with the North American wood duck. The species name galericulata refers to the crest on the head of the male.

Mandarin ducks are closely related to the North American wood duck, which is the only other member of the genus Aix. In fact, female mandarin ducks look almost identical to female wood ducks.

These ducks stand out for their colorful plumage. The male has a red bill, reddish face, orange “sail” feathers on the back, and a purple breast. The female is more subdued brown, grey, and white.

Understanding the Mandarin Duck Species

There are 10,000 to 20,000 mandarin ducks remaining in the wild. Populations have declined due to habitat loss, especially in eastern Russia and China.

Mandarin ducks were introduced to parks in Europe and the United Kingdom. These ducks come from East Asia, breeding in eastern Siberia, China, and Japan and wintering further south.

In the UK, there is a small but thriving population stemming from escaped captive ducks. Isolated populations also exist in Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, France, and North America.

Characteristics of the Mandarin Duck

Size and Weight: Mandarin ducks are 41–49 cm long and weigh 520-630 g on average.

Plumage: Males have a red bill, purple breast, orange vertical “sail feathers,” two white vertical chest stripes, and a black-bordered white crescent over the eye. Females have a grey head with white eye-ring and stripe, brown back, and dappled grey-brown flanks.

Ducklings: Ducklings resemble female wood ducklings – brown with pale wing patches.

Habitat and Native Range

Mandarin ducks prefer forested areas near water, like ponds, marshes, streams, and rivers. They nest in tree cavities close to water.

Native Range:

  • Breeds in eastern Siberia, China, and Japan
  • Winters in southern China and Japan

Introduced Range:

  • Parks and estates in Western Europe
  • Valleys at higher altitudes with deciduous forest (Europe)

Behavior and Mating Habits

Social: Outside breeding season, mandarin ducks form flocks, sometimes with 60+ birds.

Diet: Seeds, grain, plants, insects, snails, worms. Changes seasonally.


  • Form monogamous pairs for breeding season
  • Nest in tree cavities
  • Female incubates 9-12 eggs for 28 days
  • Ducklings leave nest after 1 day and follow mother

Threat Displays: Males adopt a posture with crest erect and head lowered to threaten other males. Females perform distraction displays.

Conservation Status and Threats

IUCN Red List: Least Concern


  • Habitat destruction
  • Over-hunting (now banned)
  • Hybridization with domestic mallards

Conservation efforts aim to protect forest habitats and breeding sites. Captive breeding programs also help mandarin duck populations.

How to Identify Mandarin Ducks

Male: Unmistakable colorful plumage – reddish face, purple breast, orange vertical “sail” feathers on back.

Female: Resembles female wood duck but has white eye-ring and stripe behind eye. Brown and grey mottled body.

Ducklings: Look like female wood ducklings. Distinct pale wing patches.

In Flight: Rapid wingbeats and ability to take off vertically distinguishes mandarin ducks.

Distinguishing Features and Plumage

Mandarin ducks exhibit striking sexual dimorphism. Males sport colorful plumage while females are more camouflaged.

Male Plumage:

  • Red bill
  • Reddish face and “whiskers”
  • Crest of orange and black
  • Purple breast
  • Two vertical white stripes on chest
  • Orange “sail” feathers on back
  • Flanks ruddy brown and grey

Female Plumage:

  • Grey head with white eye-ring and stripe
  • Mottled brown, black, and white body
  • Thin white vertical flank stripe
  • White underbody

Eclipse Plumage: Males molt into “eclipse” plumage in summer resembling females but keeping white eye-ring.

Recognizing Mandarin Ducklings

Mandarin ducklings resemble female wood ducklings – mostly brown with distinct pale wing patches. Their brown plumage helps camouflage them.

Mandarin Ducks in Captivity

Mandarin ducks adapt well to captivity and are common in zoos and waterfowl collections. Care must be taken to avoid hybridization with other duck species.

Captive mandarin ducks that escape can negatively impact wild populations through competition and hybridization.

What Makes Mandarin Ducks Unique?

Colorful plumage: Mandarin ducks are among the most colorful and ornate ducks. Males stand out with their purple, orange, red, black, white and brown plumage.

Shyness: Despite their beauty, mandarin ducks are shy and elusive. They may be hard to spot in their wooded habitats.

Fidelity: Mandarin ducks form strong pair bonds that may last for life. Pairs reunite year after year.

Tree nesters: Unlike most ducks, mandarin ducks nest in tree cavities rather than on the ground.

Unusual Behavior and Shyness

Although beautiful, mandarin ducks tend to be shy and elusive. Their wariness helps them survive, making them harder to spot and hunt.

They may flush and take off rapidly if startled. But mandarin ducks become quite bold during the breeding season as males aggressively defend their mates.

Mandarin Ducks in Flocks

Outside the breeding season, mandarin ducks congregate in flocks on lakes and rivers. These winter flocks may contain 60+ ducks.

Flocks allow the ducks to find safety in numbers and make it easier to locate scarce food resources.

Mandarin Duck’s Fidelity and Mating Patterns

Mandarin ducks form monogamous pairs during each breeding season. Pairs reunite year after year, showing strong mate fidelity.

In captivity, selective breeding has produced color mutations like white mandarin ducks. But inbreeding depression can occur due to the constant pairing of related birds.

Conservation Efforts and Protection

Habitat Protection: Preserving forest habitats near waterways supports mandarin duck populations.

Legal Protection: Bans on hunting and export of mandarin ducks help curb population declines.

Captive Breeding: Zoos and wildlife parks maintain mandarin ducks, safeguarding the species’ genetic diversity.

Conservation Measures and Breeding Programs

Most mandarin duck populations are now legally protected from hunting. Collection of eggs and live birds is also prohibited.

Captive breeding programs aim to maintain genetic diversity and reintroduce mandarin ducks into suitable habitats across their former range.

Understanding Threats to Mandarin Duck Populations

Mandarin ducks face threats from:

  • Habitat loss from deforestation
  • Over-hunting and poaching (now banned)
  • Competition and hybridization with escaped domestic ducks
  • Inbreeding depression in isolated populations

Ongoing conservation efforts to protect habitats, restore populations and maintain genetic diversity are crucial for the mandarin duck’s long term survival.